We've stood on the shoulders of countless giants in working on this project. Below is a non-exhaustive list of the many previous efforts that we drew heavily from (let us know who we've missed and we'll make sure to add them):


  • Burgess, S.S.O., Adams, M.A., Turner, N.C., Beverly, C.R., Ong, C.K., Khan, A.A.H., and Bleby, T.M. (2001). An improved heat pulse method to measure low and reverse rates of sap flow in woody plants. Tree Physiology 21, 589–598.
  • Clearwater, M.J., Luo, Z., Mazzeo, M., and Dichio, B. (2009). An external heat pulse method for measurement of sap flow through fruit pedicels, leaf petioles and other small-diameter stems. Plant, Cell & Environment 32, 1652–1663.
  • Marshall, D.C. (1958). Measurement of Sap Flow in Conifers by Heat Transport. Plant Physiol. 33, 385–396.
  • Skelton, R. (2017). Miniature External Sapflow Gauges and the Heat Ratio Method for Quantifying Plant Water Loss. BIO-PROTOCOL 7.

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